2 Brody, D.L., Pirkle, J.L., Kramer, R.A., Flegal, K.M., Matte, T.D., Gunter, E.W., Paschal, D.C., 1994. Blood lead levels in the US population: Phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1991). J. Amer. Med. Assn. 272:277-283.
3 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children: A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control -October 1991. Atlanta, GA: CDC, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.
6 Needleman, H.L., Schell, A., Bellinger, D., Levaton, A., Allred, E.N., 1990. The long term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an 11-year follow-up report. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:83-88.
12 This federal regulation was mandated under the federal Lead Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. Pre-1978 housing that is not affected by this rule includes "0-bedroom dwellings" such as lofts, efficiencies, and studios; leases of dwelling units of 100 days or fewer, such as vacation homes or short-term rentals; designated housing for the elderly and the handicapped unless children reside or are expected to reside there; and rental housing that has been inspected by a certified inspector and is found to be free of lead-based paint.
14 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 1990. Comprehensive and Workable Plan for the Abatement of Lead-Based Paint in Privately-Owned Housing: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
21 Housing Department orders are generally issued only after a complaint has been made, and an inspection has confirmed, that a landlord has failed to repair a dangerous lead paint condition. Health Department orders are generally issued only after it has been discovered that a child has a blood lead level of 20 ug/dl or higher and an inspection has determined that there are "conditions conducive to lead poisoning" in the home that require abatement.
23 This is a federal action level for lead that applies only to certain studies required of public water systems, and not to individual samples from homes. Thus, we may use it as a guide, but no regulatory action is triggered if this level is exceeded in your tap water.