1. New York Navigation Law, Article 12; 6 NYCRR Parts 610, 611; 17 NYCRR Part 32.

2. New York Navigation Law §179.

3. New York State's Oil Spill Fund: More Than Two Decades of Success. H. Carl McCall, State Comptroller, March 2001.

4. See generally, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Gasoline, June 1995; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,Toxicological Profile for Fuel Oil, June 1995, and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Comparative Risk Project, Human Health Work Group Final Report, May 2000.

5. Chap. 35, Laws of 2000. This law has been challenged by the manufacturers of MTBE and others. Oxygenated Fuels Association, Inc. v. Pataki, No. 00-CV-1073 (NAM-RWS) (NDNY filed July 11, 2000).

6. See endnote 4.

7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Water Quality Inventory; 1998 Report to Congress, June 2000, p. 158, and p. 340.

8. U.S. EPA Region 2, Sole Source Aquifers website:

9. U.S. EPA, Oil Spill website:, 2001.

10. See endnote 7, at 164.

11. U.S. EPA, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Corrective Action Measures Archive, Underground Storage Tank Website: ,2001

12. NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Memorandum, dated 02/08/00.

13. NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Memorandum, dated 10/06/00.

14. See endnote 3.

15. NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water, Bureau of Water Resources, Siting Manual for Storing Hazardous Substances, 1982, p. 8-9.

16. New York Tax Law § 606 (p-1).

17. 42 U.S.C. § 6991- 6991i; 40 C.F.R. Part 280.

18 U.S. EPA, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Musts for Usts: A Summary of the New Regulations for Underground Storage Tank Systems, 1990. See 42 U.S.C. Section 6991c.

19. 6 NYCRR Parts 612-614.

20. Tanks storing only # 5 or # 6 fuel oil are exempt from these regulations. These fuels are extremely thick and will not escape from most leaks, and are rarely used in home settings. However, spills of these fuels are not exempt from provisions of the Navigation law.

21. 6 NYCRR § 613.8.

22. New York Environmental Conservation Law § 71-1929, §71-1933.

23. New York Navigation Law §192. New York Environmental Conservation Law §§ 71-1929 and 71-1933.

24. New York Navigation Law §181-a

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